One of the directives pertains to the making of the incense, a blend of herbs and balms placed on coals inside the Mishkan which spread a pleasant smell:
And the Lord said to Moses: “Take for yourself aromatics, [namely] balsam sap, onycha and galbanum, aromatics and pure frankincense; they shall be of equal weight.
And you shall make it into incense?
and you shall set some of it before the testimony in the Tent of Meeting?it shall be to you a holy of holies.
(Exodus 30, 34 ? 36)
One of the ingredients in the incense was the galbanum. Surprisingly, the Babylonian Talmud says that this ingredient actually had a bad smell! This peculiar detail is related to a fabled story which is no less surprising:
?Rav ?ana bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon ?asida says: Any fast that does not include the participation of some of the sinners of the Jewish people is not a fast, as the smell of galbanum is foul and yet the verse lists it with the ingredients of the incense.?
(Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Keritut, page 6)
That foul-smelling ingredient, when mixed with all the other ingredients of the incense, made its smell pleasant. The blending of its smell with other smells combined to form a pleasant aroma. Chazal learned something from this about the complexity of human society and the manner in which society should be conducted.
Many of the negative acts done in our world stem from loneliness, from disconnection, from the emotional distancing between a person and his environment. There could be trait that in a certain situation can bring about blessings for the world, but if a person is disconnected from society and acts alone, that same trait can become an obstacle and bring about negative behavior.
When man stands before G-d, it is an individual act since each of us is a person unto himself. But there is also a shared aspect of a society composed of many different kinds of people, some good, some less. When they unite and stand together before G-d, they create a joint reality which does not exist when each of them stands separately. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
This is how the HaRan (Rabbi Nissim of Gerona, Barcelona, 14th century) explains this in his book Derashot HaRan:
?The message in the galbanum that was placed with the incense and it seemed like it would ruin it because of its bad smell ? and with that the prophecy states that it is not complete without it, so it is when we are joined in our worship of G-d by the sinners and criminals, that our worship is not ruined, but by this it becomes even more complete.
A healthy society is one that can also contain its less pleasant parts and repair them by properly integrating them. According to the HaRan, the entire society benefits from this.
The incense spreading a pleasant aroma in the Mishkan represents the entire Jewish nation, with all its varied layers and styles. Even the ?sinners?, when they are involved and integrated into society, spread a pleasant aroma that honors G-d in the Mishkan.