What is the meaning of the name Simchat Torah (literally ? the Joy of the Torah)? One of the most ancient regulations determined in the history of the Jewish nation is that of reading the Torah. Every Shabbat, during prayer services in the synagogue, the Torah scroll is taken out of its ark and a section is read from it. Over the years, this Torah portion was called ?Parashat Hashavua?, the weekly portion. For the past almost two-thousand years, the Jewish nation has been arranging this Torah reading in a yearly cycle so that every year they finish with the final portion of the Torah ? Vezot Habracha ? on Simchat Torah; and on the very same day, they start reading the Torah anew with the first portion of Breishit. With this arrangement, the entire nation reads all five books of the Torah every year thus gaining a strong and stable basis for its personal and national lives.
Reading the Torah by portions is, as mentioned, an ancient custom. The Talmud says that Moses determined this tradition of reading the Torah every Shabbat and on two days during the week. Maimonides wrote in his book Mishna Torah: ?Moses decided that Yisrael should read the Torah in public ? on Shabbat and on Monday and on Thursday during Shacharit morning services so that they would not be three days without hearing Torah? (Mishneh Torah, Hilchot Tfila, chapter 12).
In the midrash we find a description contrasting two personalities: a despairing skeptic versus a rational and calculating person. The sages of the midrash describe a person entering the synagogue and seeing the congregation learning Torah. He asks them: ?How does a person learn the entire Torah??, and they answer, ?First he reads the Megila, and then the book, and then the Prophets, and then the Scriptures. When he finishes the scriptures, he learns the Talmud and then Jewish law and then Aggadot.? The midrash continues: ?After hearing this, he said to himself, ?How can I learn all that?? and retraced his steps.? He was scared of the huge scope of the Torah and decides to abandon the mission and remain ignorant.
In contrast to this person, the midrash describes someone else: ?He who is smart, what does he do? He learns one chapter every day until he finishes the entire Torah? (Deuteronomy Rabba, chapter 8). He who is smart understands that it is impossible to cover the entire Torah in a short time. But it is possible with regular diligence and persistence. One chapter, and then another, and finally he can accomplish the mission he took upon himself.
Simchat Torah is a holiday in which we express our joy about the privilege of completing the five books of the Torah, through diligently reading one chapter after another, one portion after another, week after week.
In contrast with this, Rabbi Yishmael, among the greatest sages of the third generation of Tana?im (in the second half of the 2nd century), saw completing the Torah as a mission no one could fulfill. ?You do not take upon yourself to finish the entire Torah, but (despite this) you are not free to abandon it? (Avot of Rabbi Natan, chapter 27). Rabbi Yishmael?s approach is that the effort to advance spiritually must not be dependent on the end point. Even if we can never complete the entire Torah, we must make the effort to gain its wisdom. This is because each and every chapter or portion is an unparalleled gain.
We must recognize that even if we complete the five books of the Torah and celebrate this accomplishment, this does not mean we have nothing left to learn. Additional parts of the Torah await us and delving deeper into what we have already learned is a mission of a lifetime. For this reason, the celebration would not be complete if we stopped learning on Simchat Torah. Because of this understanding, immediately upon completion of reading the book of Deuteronomy on Simchat Torah, we start reading the Torah from the beginning of Breishit. In this way, we acknowledge that even if we completed the yearly cycle of Torah reading, we still have much more learning in store that we must see as an intellectual and spiritual accomplishment like no other.