An example of this is the status of the eldest child in the family. In the book of Deuteronomy, we learn the laws of inheritance, and there we will learn that the oldest son gets twice what his brothers get of the father?s inheritance. However, in the book of Genesis, we read a whole string of stories that question the natural status of the firstborn.
At the very start of humanity, in the first chapter of Genesis, we hear of two brothers, the firstborn Cain and his younger brother Abel. When they both offered sacrifices, the Creator of the Universe preferred that of the younger brother. The same happened with the sons of Noah: Shem ? the son who according to most commentators was the youngest was preferred over Yefet ? the firstborn. Later, Abraham was apparently not Terach?s firstborn; Isaac was preferred over his older brother Ismael; Jacob got his father?s blessings instead of Esau; the younger Rachel was the beloved wife and not her older sister Leah; Jacob?s firstborn, Reuben, was deposed from the position of firstborn and the jobs were divided among his younger brothers ? Levi, Judah, and Joseph; and in this week?s Torah portion ? Jacob blesses Joseph?s two sons and gives preference to the younger Ephraim over firstborn Menashe.
This run of similar stories cannot be ignored. Throughout all of Genesis, from beginning to end, we find the younger child given preference over the firstborn. It is clear that the Torah is conveying a message that is to serve as a background to the rest of the Torah.
The status of the firstborn and the rights that come with it are the result of a biological fact: the son born first. Nature is the factor that determines social norms. This is what was acceptable in all ancient cultures. As we mentioned, the laws of inheritance written in Deuteronomy bequeath preference to the firstborn in his father?s inheritance. But the book of Deuteronomy without the book of Genesis might give us a skewed perspective that bestows social status based on a reality that is out of man?s control.
Therefore, the Torah gives us a slew of stories in Genesis that teach us that social status should not be determined only by biological factors, but as a result of values that the person chose. Moral and religious leadership are those that determine norms, create status, and bestow both privileges and obligations.
The book of Genesis serves as an essential background to the continuation of the Torah, not only so we can comprehend the beginning of the story, but so we get an accurate picture of the values the Torah wishes to bequeath to us. These stories – of the Patriarchs, of Joseph and his brothers ? are not only fables illustrating distant history. They are foundational stories that teach a world view and set up a value system that serves as the basis for the Torah?s commandments written in the following books.