Chanukah menorah symbolizes a major historical event for the Jewish nation: the dedication of the Temple by the Maccabees after they beat the armies of Antiochus Epiphanes in the year 165 BCE. The main mitzvah (commandment) of the Chanukah holiday is lighting candles every evening of the eight days of Chanukah. Our connection to the Temple is the essence of the menorah; however, as time passed, menorahs were created using different materials (stone, copper, silver, brass, etc.). Most of them have a back whose design reflects the influence and style of the time and the environment in which it was created. Many menorahs have themes symbolizing the Temple and its ritual objects, holy sites, and historic events which express the heroism of the Jews and the purification of the Temple.
End of the 19th century, Jerusalem